Investments4-5 years old
Payback period4000-5000 thousand rubles
Cremation cost (without additional services)from 15-20 thousand rubles.
Cremation cost (with funeral services)In Russia, the number of people who want to be cremated after death is gradually growing. There is also a demand for pet cremation services. What do you need to open a crematorium in Russia?
The funeral business is considered one of the most profitable, so it is not surprising that the competition in this segment is huge. However, most entrepreneurs are interested in organizing traditional funerals. But, in addition to burying the remains in the ground, the cremation procedure is quite widespread.
Cremation is common in many countries around the world. For example, in the United States alone, more than 1.5 thousand crematoria operate, and in the United Kingdom more than 350 crematoria were built. Among the countries where cremation is preferred to traditional burial, one can name Japan and China (about 98% of all the dead are cremated), Czech Republic (95%), Great Britain (70%), Denmark (68%) and Sweden (65%).
The number of crematoria in different countries of the world
NUMBER OF cremators
PERCENT OF PREPARED POPULATION
In our country, by 2018 there are only 24 operating crematoriums. Most of them are state owned. It is immediately worth noting that according to the current law “On burial and funeral affairs” (N122-ФЗ), that there are no clearly formulated legal grounds for the functioning of private crematoriums, therefore private crematoriums exist de facto and not de jure. The share of cremation in Russia as a whole is low and amounts to only 10%. However, in those cities of Russia where crematoria already exist, the percentage of cremation can reach up to 70% (Moscow, Yekaterinburg, St. Petersburg) and even up to 95% (Norilsk).
What is a crematorium? In simple words, the crematorium is a specially equipped building where the dead are burned. As a rule, in this building there are two main rooms: in one, the relatives say goodbye to the deceased, and the other is the so-called cremation hall. It should be noted that the cremation procedure does not contradict the traditions of the Russian Orthodox Church and the Orthodox canons, although it is not welcomed by church hierarchs. To crematoria, the funeral service for the deceased may even be allowed.
During cremation, coffins of combustible material are used. During cremation, the temperature inside the seal is between 870 and 1090 degrees Celsius. Under the influence of such high temperatures, tissues and bones are destroyed into small fragments. The duration of this procedure depends on the model of the cremation furnace. As a rule, the cremation of the body of an adult of average build takes from one and a half to two hours.
After the remains have cooled, they are transferred to a temporary container, where they are carefully crushed. Subsequently, they are poured into an urn of wood, ceramics or bronze and transferred to the relatives or friends of the deceased. Sometimes the ashes in an urn are placed in a columbarium, buried in the ground, or dispersed in a specially designated area.
So, the need for the services of such a funeral institution is quite large, including in Russia. However, the opening of the crematorium requires a large start-up capital. Such a project, although highly profitable, still pays off for a long time. Before proceeding with the search for a site for its construction, carefully analyze the situation with funeral companies in your area, study the demand, population and mortality rate.
The three main problems facing entrepreneurs planning such a business are: large starting capital (buying land for construction, expensive equipment, drawing up all the necessary documents) and finding a land plot that meets all the requirements and high competition with the traditional method of burial.
How and where to open a crematorium
Opening a crematorium in a small city with a population of less than 700 thousand people does not make sense - you just do not pay back your expenses. Experts recommend working in the region, but only in densely populated regions. In this case, the correct choice of the location of the crematorium is of great importance, so that it is convenient to get to it from various settlements. In cities with a population of over 700 thousand people, opening a crematorium will be cost-effective only if there are no competitors. Funeral homes and funeral services are your indirect competitors.
Before starting construction, you need to develop an architectural design for the future crematorium and get a large number of permits from local authorities. In Moscow there are companies that offer services for obtaining all the necessary documents. They act as intermediaries and are involved in paperwork, including in other cities.
The location of the crematorium is subject to certain requirements. It must comply with all regulatory requirements, be located on the territory specially designated for this purpose outside the city, in order to minimize the harmful impact on the environment. In some cases, with the agreement of the municipal authorities, you can open a crematorium in the city (but it should be located at least three kilometers from residential buildings). As a rule, the territory of the city cemetery is selected for its placement.
The construction of a brick crematorium will be quite expensive and time consuming. Therefore, often the owners of crematoria try to save on construction, preferring not capital brick walls, but metal structures. Use in the construction of lightweight structures allows you to erect a complex of buildings from finished elements in a short time.
The crematorium complex usually consists of one-story ritual and technical buildings, as well as a gallery that connects them. The ritual building includes a farewell hall, a lobby, a first-aid post, and utility rooms. The technical building consists of a cremation hall, household, utility and technical rooms. You will also need to take care of parking for cars.
When a crematorium opens a company that already has its own funeral business, it can reduce costs by building only a cremation hall. As a place of farewell of relatives to the deceased, you can use the premises in the existing building (usually near the cemetery). Tile pavement is laid in the crematorium, benches are installed, lawns and flower beds are broken.
What equipment is needed to open a crematorium
As equipment for the cremation hall, you will need special furnaces. In most cases, they consist of two chambers. In the largest chamber, the body is cremated with a coffin. In its second separation, all combustion products (harmful impurities, solid smoke-forming particles) are burned out of the exhaust gases. Thus, only heated air leaves the furnace tubes without traces of smoke and burning and an unpleasant odor. The coffin is loaded into the furnace using hydraulic trolleys of various models or automated trolleys with a rail (for cremation furnaces of high power).
In addition to furnaces, you will need a refrigerator, where the bodies are stored in anticipation of cremation, and a cremator, which first removes unburned metal objects (for example, dentures) from cremated remains with a magnet trap, and then crushes the ashes. The best cremation equipment that meets the most stringent environmental requirements is manufactured in the USA, Czech Republic and Germany. It is quite durable. On average, such machines require major repairs after 5-6 thousand cremations (approximately 3-5 years of operation). Repair consists in replacing the refractory materials of the hearth and arch of the main cremation chamber, the refractory materials of the afterburner, the exhaust gas outlet and the burner lining. You can carry out major repairs on your own or call a specialist from abroad. In the latter case, the cost of repair increases to 75-80 thousand rubles.
The list of additional equipment includes stainless steel and aluminum ash trays, temporary plastic or cardboard dust containers, plates for fastening on these containers or ballot boxes, hand magnets for removing metal objects from dust, brushes for removing dust from the furnace, tools for servicing cremation equipment.
Overalls are ordered for the crematorium staff, which consists of a mask, goggles, respirators, work gowns, gloves, aprons. The uniform can also be a dense cotton jumpsuit, stockings for shoes and a hood. It protects against dust and dirt, and specialized aprons with aluminum inserts and protective sleeves are used to remove dust and clean the oven to protect against burns.
The cremation process takes, as mentioned above, more than an hour. From the ritual building, the coffin, mounted on a hand-held transfer trolley, is transported through an indoor gallery to the technical building - to the cremation hall. Then it is transferred to the loading window, through which it is loaded onto the bottom of the furnace. Upon completion of the cremation, the combustion products are collected in a special container in the discharge window, and then fed to the grinding site. Then they are poured into the urn, which is stored in the technical building until it is issued to the client. The natural gas consumption of one furnace is about 25 m3 / hour.
The cheapest cremation equipment will cost from 5 to 10 million rubles. High-quality equipment that meets all the requirements costs two, two and a half times more. A minimum of 25-30 million rubles will be needed to open the crematorium. This amount includes the purchase of furnaces and other equipment, the purchase or rental of land, the construction of a crematorium, and the wage fund. The average payback period of an enterprise is at least 4-5 years.
Although the cost of cremation is about 4-5 thousand rubles (according to data for Moscow and St. Petersburg), ritual accessories are additionally paid: coffin, bed and pillow in a coffin, mourning cover, etc., transportation, decoration of the farewell hall, music, etc. .d. As a result, to cremate the deceased, a minimum of 15-20 thousand rubles is required, and VIP services can cost almost 200 thousand rubles. The organizational structure of such an enterprise includes managers (directors), an accountant, a mechanic, a locksmith, a furnace operator (at least 6-8 people), a manager and a watchman.
Cremation services for animals
Opening a crematorium is a very complicated, albeit lucrative, business. Due to the need to have a large start-up capital or to attract investors to open it, entrepreneurs are trying to find still empty and less expensive niches. These include, for example, a crematorium for pets. This is a very promising area, because Russian law prohibits the burial of the bodies of pets in the ground. Moreover, they should not be thrown into garbage containers.
Meanwhile, there are no specialized pet cemeteries in most Russian cities. Therefore, cremation is the best option for disposal of the remains. In the West, animal crematoriums are quite widespread. They offer not only services for the disposal of the remains, but also for the storage of their ashes and even the manufacture of various memorable “souvenirs” (pendants with particles of ashes, special jugs and urns, etc.). Gradually, such enterprises began to appear in Russian cities. Now they exist in Moscow, St. Petersburg, Tomsk, Yekaterinburg, Novosibirsk and other major cities of the country.
Opening a crematorium for pets is much easier and cheaper than an ordinary one. Since animal cremation is a veterinary activity, it does not require licensing. True, you cannot buy special equipment for cremation in our country. Stoves and everything else will have to be ordered in Europe (Germany, UK). But even in this case, they will cost an order of magnitude less than equipment for conventional crematoriums. And you can be sure of the quality of the equipment and its compliance with all environmental standards and requirements.
In addition, the seller will send all the certificates and certificates for the equipment. The cost of equipment for the cremation of animals depends on the capacity and volume of the furnace. An oven with a capacity of 100 kilograms, measuring two meters in length and one in width costs about 400-500 thousand rubles. The requirements for the premises are the same as for ordinary crematoriums. At first, you can do without a columbaria (storage of urns with ashes). For such a crematorium there is no need for a ritual corps, therefore it is combined with a technical one. In the future, it will be possible to expand the area and offer customers additional services.
Crematoriums for animals offer two options for cremation of the animal: the usual procedure and the individual. The latter differs from the usual one in that before cremation, the furnace is thoroughly cleaned to prevent mixing of the remains with the ashes of other animals. The body of the animal is placed in a cardboard box wrapped inside with polyethylene.
Then the box is either sent to the freezer, if you need to postpone the procedure, or immediately to the oven. The furnace heats up very quickly, the box burns first at 600 degrees Celsius, and then the temperature doubles. Smoke generated during combustion is burned with additional gas. At the exit, carbon monoxide and a handful of ash are obtained, which is collected in a special plastic container, and then given to the owner.
If desired, for an additional fee, you can replace the plastic container with a special ballot box. The entire cremation procedure from ignition of the furnace to its complete cooling takes about six hours. The body completely turns into ashes in three hours, the same amount will be required for the furnace to cool completely, since its wall thickness is about ten centimeters.
In the West, the production and sale of copyright trash cans is an additional source of income for crematoria. However, Russian customers, as a rule, prefer not to store the ashes of a four-legged pet at home, but bury it in the ground, which does not contradict Russian laws and sanitary standards.
The services of crematoriums for pets are in great demand, but advertising is still indispensable. First of all, you need to place ads in the veterinary clinics of the city. As practice shows, it is there that the owners of deceased animals turn to first of all with questions about where to bury the pet. Many companies actively use the Internet to promote their services. For example, the Tomsk crematorium for pets offers a special service “virtual memory” on its website: owners of deceased animals can place an obituary with a photograph of their pet in an electronic gallery.
The cost of cremation is, on average, about 1000-2000 rubles, depending on the weight of the animal or one and a half times more, if we are talking about individual cremation. Burning the body of a small animal (for example, a cat) costs about 500 rubles, a small rodent - about 300 rubles.
Opening a crematorium for animals pays off within 1-2 years, depending on the region, the cost of services and demand. It would seem that this business does not depend on the seasonal factor, since animals die from old age or disease throughout the year. However, the owners of such companies note that their services are most in demand from late autumn to mid spring, and in the warm season there is a significant decline. It is due to the fact that, despite strict bans, owners of cats and dogs still prefer to bury dead animals in the ground and turn to crematorium services only in the cold season, when the ground freezes and it becomes impossible to dig a grave. One of the directions for expanding such a business is the organization of a biological waste disposal plant.
(c) www.clogicsecure.com - a portal to business plans and guidelines for starting a small business 08/18/2019